Sport performance is influenced by several factors, including genetic susceptibility. In the past years, specific single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated to sport performance; however, these effects should be considered in multivariable prediction systems since they are related to a polygenic inheritance. The aim of this study was to design a genetic endurance prediction score (GES) of endurance performance and analyze its association with anthropometric, nutritional and sport efficiency variables in a cross-sectional study within fifteen male cyclists. A statistically significant positive relationship between GES and the VO2 maximum (P = 0.033), VO2 VT1 (P = 0.049) and VO2 VT2 (P < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, additional remarkable associations between genotype and the anthropometric, nutritional and sport performance variables, were achieved. In addition, an interesting link between the habit of consuming caffeinated beverages and the GES was observed. The outcomes of the present study indicate a potential use of this genetic prediction algorithm in the sports’ field, which may facilitate the finding of genetically talented athletes, improve their training and food habits, as well as help in the improvement of physical conditions of amateurs.
Chronobiological aspects controlled by CLOCK genes may influence obesity incidence. Although there are studies that show an association between the expression of these genes and energy intake, waist circumference or abdominal obesity phenotypes, interactions with appetite have been insufficiently investigated in relation to chrononutrition. The objective was to identify interactions between CLOCK genetic variants involved in appetite status. A total of 442 subjects (329 women, 113 men; aged 18 to 65 years) were recruited. Anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by trained nutritionists. Participants were classified according to their appetite feelings with a Likert scale. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of the type genotype x appetite status on adiposity-related variables. p values were corrected by the Bonferroni method. A significant influence was found concerning the effects of appetite on waist circumference with respect to rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism (p < 0.001). An additive model analysis (adjusted by age, gender, exercise and energy intake) showed that risk allele carriers, increased the waist circumference around 14 cm (β = 14.1, CI = 6.3-22.0) by each increment in the level of appetite. The effects of appetite on waist circumference may be partly modulated by the rs3749474 CLOCK polymorphism.
Keywords: biorhythm genes; chronobiology; interaction; metabolic syndrome; obesity; polymorphism.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of energy intake and macronutrients consumption throughout the day, and how its effect on nutritional status can be modulated by the presence of the rs3749474 polymorphism of the CLOCK gene in the Cantoblanco Platform for Nutritional Genomics (“GENYAL Platform”). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 898 volunteers between 18 and 69 years old (65.5% women). Anthropometric measurements, social issues and health, dietary, biochemical, genetic, and physical activity data were collected. Subsequently, 21 statistical interaction models were designed to predict the body mass index (BMI) considering seven dietary variables analyzed by three genetic models (adjusted by age, sex, and physical activity). The average BMI was 26.9 ± 4.65 kg/m2, 62.14% presented an excess weight (BMI > 25 kg/m2). A significant interaction was observed between the presence of the rs3749474 polymorphism and the evening carbohydrate intake (% of the total daily energy intake [%TEI]) (adjusted p = 0.046), when predicting the BMI. Participants carrying TT/CT genotype showed a positive association between the evening carbohydrate intake (%TEI) and BMI (β = 0.3379, 95% CI = (0.1689,0.5080)) and (β = 0.1529, 95% CI = (-0.0164,0.3227)), respectively, whereas the wild type allele (CC) showed a negative association (β = -0.0321, 95% CI = (-0.1505,0.0862)). No significant interaction with the remaining model variables was identified. New dietary strategies may be implemented to schedule the circadian distribution of macronutrients according to the genotype. Clinical Trial number: NCT04067921.
Keywords: CLOCK gene; carbohydrate intake; dietary parameters; obesity; rs3749474; single nucleotide polymorphism.
Background & aims: Calcium and dairy products have multiple health benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the association between calcium/dairy intake, blood pressure, the BDNF-AS rs925946 polymorphism and nutritional status in a group of schoolchildren.
Methods: As part of the GENYAL study to childhood obesity prevention, 221 children belonging to different areas of the Community of Madrid were enrolled. Anthropometric and dietary data were collected, and children were genotyped according to the rs925946 polymorphism. Adjusted logistic and linear models were used to describe the data.
Results: A significantly lower consumption of calcium in overweight versus normal weight children was observed (811.0 ± 174.1; 859.0 ± 195.9; 954.0 ± 223.1 mg; for obesity, overweight and normal weight, respectively, p = 0.010). Moreover, an inverse association between blood pressures and calcium intake was detected (β = -0.006 (-0.011, -3e-4)), p = 0.040. The number of dairy servings/day showed a protective effect against overweight (OR = 0.48 (0.29, 0.75), p = 0.001). Finally, common homozygous children (GG) showed an inverse association between the calcium intake and the BMI (β = -0.003 (-0.006, -0.001), p = 0.004), which was not observed in children carrying the T allele (β = -1.3e-4 (-0.0022, 0.0024), p = 0.93).
Conclusion: Calcium and dairy were strongly associated with the nutritional status and blood pressure. The identification of differential effects of calcium/dairy consumption on the nutritional status according to genetics may contribute to the personalization of future nutritional advice.
Trial registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.govNCT03419520.
Keywords: Child nutrition science; Dairy products; Dietary calcium; Nutritional genomics; Pediatric obesity; Single nucleotide polymorphism.
Exercise performance is influenced by genetics. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the role played by genetic variability in the frequency of physical exercise practice. The objective was to identify genetic variants that modulate the commitment of people to perform physical exercise and to detect those subjects with a lower frequency practice. A total of 451 subjects were genotyped for 64 genetic variants related to inflammation, circadian rhythms, vascular function as well as energy, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Physical exercise frequency question and a Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPAQ) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the average amount of physical exercise. Dietary intake and energy expenditure due to physical activity were also studied. Differences between genotypes were analyzed using linear and logistic models adjusted for Bonferroni. A significant association between GCKR rs780094 and the times the individuals performed physical exercise was observed (p = 0.004). The carriers of the minor allele showed a greater frequency of physical exercise in comparison to the major homozygous genotype carriers (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.36-2.56). The analysis of the GCKR rs780094 variant suggests a possible association with the subjects that present lower frequency of physical exercise. Nevertheless, future studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Keywords: behavior; exercise; genotyping; glucokinase-regulator; obesity.
(1) Background: Childhood rapid weight gain during development has been postulated as a predictor of obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the annual weight gain and height growth, as well as identifying possible lifestyle factors involved. (2) Methods: As part of the GENYAL study, 221 children (6-8 years old) of Madrid (Spain) were enrolled. A total of 11 SNPs associated with high childhood body mass indexes (BMIs) were assessed. Anthropometric measurements, dietary and physical activity data, were collected in 2017 and 2018. Bonferroni-corrected linear models were used to fit the data. (3) Results: A significant association between the Q223R LEPR and the weight growth was found, showing a different behavior between GA and GG genotypes (p = 0.001). Regarding lifestyle factors, an interaction between Q223R genotypes and total active weekly hours/week to predict the weight growth (kg/year) was observed (p = 0.023). In all the genotypes, a beneficial effect against rapid weight growth was observed, but the effect size of the interaction was much more significant in homozygous (GG) minor homozygous (β = -0.61 (-0.95, -0.26) versus heterozygous (AG) and wild-type homozygous (AA) genotypes (β = -0.07 (-0.24, 0.09) and β = -0.12 (-0.32, 0.08), respectively). (4) Conclusions: These results may contribute to more personalized recommendations to prevent childhood obesity.
Keywords: LEPR; Q223R; childhood obesity; gene-environmental interaction; nutrition precision; weight growth rate.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a weight loss treatment on obesity- associated variables with respect to the CLOCK and FTO genotypes.
Methods: In all, 179 volunteers (78% female) participated in a 12-week calorie-restriction program; hypocaloric diets of between 5442 and 10048 kJ/d were individually prescribed to all participants. Dietetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected at baseline and at the end of the intervention. When treatment was over, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were sought in CLOCK and FTO in all participants who provided consent. Bonferroni-corrected linear regression models were used to examine the influence of interactions of the type genotype × dietetic change on obesity-associated variables.
Results: Variation in the CLOCK and FTO genotypes had no significant influence on the change in obesity-associated variables. The interaction genotype × percentage intake of dietary fat had a significant influence on body mass index (BMI; adjusted P = 0.03). Participants carrying CLOCK rs3749474 (TT + CT) showed a positive association between the change in percentage intake of dietary fat and change in BMI (β = 0.044; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0119-0.0769; P = 0.008), whereas participants homozygous for the wild-type allele (CC) showed a negative, although nonsignificant association (β = -0.032; 95% CI, -0.0694 to 0.036; P = 0.077).
Conclusion: The possession of CLOCK rs3749474 may influence the effect of reducing the percentage intake of dietary fat on obesity-associated variables. Participants carrying this SNP might benefit more than others from weight loss treatment involving dietary fat restriction. The treatment of obesity might therefore be customized, depending on the alleles carried.
Keywords: CLOCK; Gene–diet interaction; Nutrigenetics; Obesity; rs3749474.